Breakdown of Wood
There are some common construction terms for wood furniture that come up again and again. Here is a quick breakdown:
Solid wood can mean that all exposed pieces of the piece are solid, but areas hidden from view may be another material. There can be one single board or plank of wood, or also several wood boards or blocks that are glued together.
Not to be confused with…
All Wood Construction:
All wood construction simply means that all parts are made of wood. However, the piece of furniture may include some combination of solid wood and engineered wood.
Not our thing…
An artificially laminated surface consists of plastic, foil or paper that is printed with a wood grain pattern. This is then bonded to a composite such as particleboard or medium density fiberboard.
There are two kinds of engineered wood: plywood and particleboard, which is also called fiberboard.
When wood is engineered from slices of lumber it is called plywood. Plywood can have 3 to 5 thin slices of wood glued together under high pressure, which is usually an indication of quality construction.
When chips and fibers that remain after a tree is milled into lumber are combined and glued together it is called particleboard or fiberboard. Medium density fiberboard is made by breaking down wood chips into fibers, mixing the fibers with glue, and fusing the resulting mixture under heat and pressure to produce a board.
Other terms to know…
Kilns are large ovens or in which wood is dried or cured through carefully controlled heat and humidity. Kiln drying removes about 93% of the moisture from wood. Wood that has been kiln dried resists warping splitting and cracking.
Wood from broad-leafed trees that lose their leaves in winter, such as oak, ash, cherry, maple, walnut and poplar is known as hardwood.
Hardwood is generally considered better for furniture construction than softwood (These woods are easily carved or worked. Because the wood surface is often quite soft, they are more susceptible to damage) as it has strength and stability. Conversely, it can present difficulties in carving or detailing. There are many tropical hardwoods that come from tropical forests, such as mahogany, teak and ipe.
To veneer is to apply thin sheets of better quality wood to a core, usually of less expensive material, which could be solid wood or engineered wood, for decorative effect.
The thin sheets are also known as veneer. Veneers make it possible to match grain patterns or create designs.